Scholars believe the Edwin Smith Papyrus, above, with a provenance dating to the 17th century B.C.E. is the earliest detailed medical text, mainly focused on traumatic conditions, starting with the head, and progressing downward. It is noteworthy in that the major internal organs were identified and blood vessels were believed to radiate from the heart. The translator, James H. Breasted - believed that the text was copied by one or more scribes from an earlier codex, perhaps dating to the period between 3000 B.C.E. and 2,500 B.C.E.
This is just one of several significant papyri examples covering this topic.