In Greek - Herodon Basileus(king)
Archaeologists have found the tomb of King Herod. Herod was referred to in the biblical Book of Matthew - as the force behind the "massacre of the innocents." Several other 'Herods' are mentioned in the Bible, including Herod Antipas, Herod Agrippa, and Herod Archelaus.
Herod was a client-king of the Romans, serving at the pleasure of the Roman Senate, where he was considered a 'strongman' who in Roman opinion could control the schismatic Jews as well as the other nationalities living in Palestine.
More Hellenistic than Jewish, Herod was an Idumaen and resented for having more in common with the Hellenized elite than faithful Jews. He developed a close relationship as a drinking partner of Marcus Antonius (Antony), but had the presence of mind to switch sides when Antony's downfall became apparent, and became a close ally of Octavian (Augustus). His main contribution was the elaboration of the Second Temple, the wall of which is still evident in Jerusalem.
Main source for his reign: Flavius Josephus
Labels: 2nd temple
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